Here are studies, reports and stories that caught our eye in the last month.

No “standard” claim: Isn’t one rear-end crash like every other rear-end crash? No, says an article in Property Casualty 360 that’s part of a six-part series about adjuster ethics. “Each claim is unique, the people involved are individuals, and each claim needs to be adjusted on its merits,” the article says. “When we try to do away with individualism in each loss, we either over-pay or under-pay, hence the claim is no longer ‘fair and equitable.’”

Bodily injury claims: Claimants must prove both liability and damages to be entitled for compensation in bodily injury claims. But, says an article in Claims magazine, liability is often overlooked. “A good rule of thumb for all adjusters is to never underestimate the importance of liability as a critical element of the claims investigation,” the article says. “Beyond the potential accuracy improvement in indemnity payments, there is a dramatic rise in subrogation potential.”

Cars could someday alert drivers to their own medical emergencies: Sudden cardiac events for drivers behind the wheel can turn into tragedies for not only the driver, but his passengers and others on the road. Toyota, along with a team of researchers at the University of Michigan, are exploring technology that could monitor a driver and predict if they are going to have a heart attack or other adverse cardiac event while driving, according to an article in Insurance Journal.

The role of social media in personal injury claims: Defense attorneys are adding a new weapon in their arsenal as they fight personal injury claims: A plantiff’s social media accounts. “Many plaintiffs make things very easy for the defense, simply by posting things on social media that undermine their claims,” says an article in Forbes. “For example, a simple post about mowing the lawn could be used as evidence to refute a personal injury claim about a back injury.”

Can robots review personal injury claims? The answer, at Zurich Insurance, is yes. The company is using artificial intelligence to decide personal injury claims. “We recently introduced AI claims handling … and saved 40,000 work hours, while speeding up the claim processing time to five seconds,” chairman Tom de Swaan told Reuters as reported in Claims Journal. The robots began doing the work in March to review paperwork, including medical reports.